These are oscillations of electric and magnetic fields that propagate as waves at the speed of light. Our electromagnetic radiation is known in the natural and artificial environment in various forms. Infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as radio and television frequencies, microwaves and the electric and magnetic fields of the electric railway and power lines. As for the radiation of cellular systems, the electromagnetic radiation comes from the frequency range between 700 MHz and 3600 MHz. From a physical point of view, these different radiations are different in frequency and energy .
Based on frequency The emitted radiation is divided into "non-ionizing" and "ionizing".
The ionizing radiation is characterized by very high emission frequencies and has the property of causing ionization of atoms (i.e. to expel an electron from an atom). For this reason ionizing radiation can cause damage to cells, tissues and more generally to biological organisms. Examples of ionizing radiation are X-rays and gamma rays emitted by radioactive materials. Non ionizing radiation does not cause ionization of atoms. Examples of non-ionizing radiation are visible light, ultraviolet radiation, infrared light, radio waves and microwaves. Emissions from radio, television, mobile telephony, satellite systems and radar antennas, ie the total electromagnetic radiation of radio frequencies is Non ionizing radiation. The following figure shows the electromagnetic spectrum:
In relation to the carried energy, electromagnetic waves can be described by the following quantities:
- Electric field strength E (unit of measurement: Volts per meter - V/m)
- Magnetic field strength H (unit of measurement: Ampere per meter - A/m)
- Power Flux Density S (unit of measurement: Watt per square meter - W/m2)
In the radio frequency range, the basic quantity that characterizes electromagnetic fields is Electric Field Strength which is recorded under the program PEDION24.